More about Eyjafjallajökull, the Icelandic Volcano that Stranded Europe

On: Wednesday, May 12, 2010

 

 

Eyjafjallajökull (pronounced AY-uh-fyat-luh-YOE-kuutl-uh)—Icelandic for "island-mountain glacier"[1]—is one of the smaller ice caps of Iceland, situated to the north of Skógar and to the west of Mýrdalsjökull. The ice cap covers the caldera of the volcano with a summit elevation of 1,666 metres (5,466 ft). The volcano has erupted relatively frequently since the last glacial period, most recently from 1821 to 1823 and again in 2010.[2][3][4]

The ice cap covers an area of about 100 square kilometres (39 sq mi), feeding many outlet glaciers. The south end of the mountain was once part of the island's Atlantic coastline, but over thousands of years the sea retreated some 5 kilometres (3.1 mi), with the former coastline now consisting of sheer cliffs with many waterfalls, of which the best known is Skógafoss. In strong winds, the water of the smaller falls can even be blown up the mountain.

The volcano, which has a crater 3–4 kilometres (1.9–2.5 mi) in diameter, erupted in 920, 1612 and again from 1821 to 1823 when it caused a glacial lake outburst flood or jökulhlaup.[5] It has erupted twice in 2010—on 20 March and in April/May. The March event forced a brief evacuation of around 500 local people,[6][7] but the 14 April eruption was ten to twenty times more powerful and caused substantial disruption to air traffic across Europe, and is ongoing.

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